I Shall Not Hate: A Gaza Doctor's Journey on the Road to

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Our goal is clear--to wipe Israel off the map." One of the most interesting results in Table 1 is that many of the leading Middle Eastern countries of immigration to the United States are non-Arab. Like the Balkanization of Europe, such a process would be slow, coming in fits and starts. Mapai's left-wing coalition partners, Mapam and Ahdut Ha’avodah, balked at an open identification with one side in the Cold War, especially as there was no concrete advantage in doing so.

The Iraq War: As Witnessed by the Correspondents and

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The philosophical underpinnings of the neoconservatives are the writing of Machiavelli, Hobbes and Edmund Burke and they believe that the right political idea entails a fusion of morality and force. Formerly named for Albert Sidney Johnston, the school was renamed on May 12, 2016. South of the Mediterranean Sea, the Red and Arabian Seas surround the southern part of the Middle East. The Phoenician alphabet had only 22 letters, and so was learned relatively easily. But peace is what so many people are trying to accomplish.

The Shah and I: Confidential Diary of Iran's Loyal Court,

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Israel, september 1983: Begin resigns, but neither Likud nor Labor wins the elections, and Yitzah Shamir and Shimon Peres accept a power-sharing agreement to alternate as prime ministers of Israel Kuwait, december 1983: Shiite terrorists funded by Iran (including three Lebanese of Hezbollah) blow up the USA and French embassies in Kuwait, killing six people Lebanon, february 1984: Militias fight for control of Beirut, which has become the most dangerous city in the world (car bombs, kidnaps, assassinations) Lebanon, march 1985: A car bomb planted by CIA-funded Christian militia fail to assassinate Hezbollah's spiritual leader Sheikh Mohammed Hussein Fadballah, but instead kills 80 civilians Tunisia, 1985: Israel raids the PLO headquarters in Tunis, killing 60 people Lebanon, june 1985: Terrorists hijack a TWA flight, kill one USA passenger and release the others after Israel accept to release 700 Shiite prisoners Lebanon, june 1985: Israel withdraws to the southern part of Lebanon, which officially cedes to friendly Christian militias Palestine, october 1985: Palestinian terrorists led by Abu Abbas hijack the Achille Lauro cruise ship, kill one USA passenger, escape via Egypt, are tracked down by USA warplanes, and are finally helped to escape by the Italian government Israel, 1986: Mordechai Vanunu, a former Israeli nuclear technician, reveals the Israeli nuclear program Palestine, december 1987: Emanating from the Jabaliya refugee camp, Palestinians in the occupied territories begin an uprising against Israeli occupation forces using mainly rocks (the first "intifada") mainly protesting continued expansion of Israeli settlements in the Palestinian areas of the West Bank Palestine, december 1987: Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, backed by donors in the Gulf states, creates the civilian and military organization Hamas in Gaza as the Palestinian wing of the Muslim Brotherhood, with the goal to drive Israel out of the Middle East and establish an Islamic state Lebanon, february 1988: Hezbollah kidnaps a USA diplomat, William Higgins Algeria, nov ember 1988: Arafat declares the independece of Palestine, and the state is recognized by Turkey, Greece, India, China, the Soviet Union, Pakistan and Austria USA, december 1988: Following Arafat's speech in which he renounced terrorism and recognized Israel's right to exist, the USA recognizes the PLO and begins direct talks Palestine, may 1989: Ahmed Yassin, leader of Hamas, is arrested and condemned to life in prison, and his successor Musa Abu Marzook separates the civilian and military wings of Hamas (Salah Shihada establishes Hamas' military apparatus) Niger, september 1989: the PFLP-GC blows up a French UTA airliner over Niger, probably on behalf of Libya Israel, may 1990: With funding from Saddam Hussein's Iraq, Abu Abbas' PLF (now based in Baghdad) attempts to land six boats on Israel's Nizanim beach Lebanon, october 1990: the last Christian leader to fight Syria and the Muslims in Lebanon, general Michel Aoun, surrenders to Syria (after a battle that killed 700 Christians), and the civil war ends (40,000 people have died in 16 years) Jordan, 1991: Mohammed Nazzal, a Jordan-based leader of Hamas, with the help of Osama bin Laden terrorists, unleashes a campaign of terrorist bombings and assassinations aimed at toppling the regime of King Hussein Jordan, 1991: One of the founders of Hamas, Khaled Mashal, settles in Jordan Egypt, 1992: extremists launch a campaign aimed at ousting president Hosni Mubarak, that will kill 1,100 people in five years Lebaonon, 1992: Israel assassinated the leader of Hezbollah, Abbas al-Musawi, and Hassan Nasrallah becomes the new leader of Hezbollah Palestine, september 1993: following secret negotiations in Oslo, the Israeli prime minister Yitzhak Rabin and PLO leader Arafat sign an agreement to start a peace process (Israel recognizes the PLO and the PLO recognizes Israel) Palestine, may 1994: The West Bank and the Gaza Strip are turned over by Israel to the Palestinian Authority under the command of Yassir Arafat, who is, de facto, recognized as the leader of the future Palestinian state Israel, october 1994: Hamas and the Islamic Jihad movement begin a series of suicide terrorist attacks against Israeli civilians, including 22 people in october 1994, 19 people in january 1995, 58 people in 1996, 24 people in 1997 (mostly suicide bombings) Palestine, 1995: Fatah security chief in Gaza, Mohammed Dahlan, arrests hundreds of members of Hamas Malta, october 1995: Fathi Shqaqi, founder of the Islamic Jihad, is assassinated by Israeli agents, possibly with the collaboration of the PLO, and is replaced by Ramadan Shalah whose base is in Syria Palestine, march 1996: Arafat cracks down on Hamas, whose terrorists are trying to derail the peace process Israel, april 1996: Israel launches Operation Grapes of Wrath in Lebanon that displaces 400,000 Lebanese and kills more than 100 civilians, including 102 women and children killed in the bombing of the Kana refugee center run by the United Nations Israel, march 1997: Benjamin Netanyahu authorizes a Jewish settlement at Har Homa, that cuts off Palestinians of Jerusalem from Betlehem, and a few days later a suicide bomber kills three people in a Tel Aviv cafe Jordan, september 1997: An Israeli team fails to assassinate one of the founders of Hamas, Khaled Mashal, and has to release Hamas' spiritual leader Sheikh Yassin in exchange for Jordan to release its secret agents Palestine, october 1997: upset by a failed assassination attempt by Israeli secret agents against Hamas' leader in Jordan (Khaled Mishal), that threatens the peace treaty between the two countries, Jordan's King Hussein demands and obtains the release of Hamas leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin Palestine, 1997: Mohammed Dalan, the leader of Fatah in Gaza, is accused of having ammassed a personal fortune by stealing from levied taxes Palestine, december 1998: USA president Clinton lands at Gaza's new internatinal airport, the first USA president to visit Palestine Jordan, august 1999: Jordan expels Khaled Mashal/ Meshaal, one of the foundes of Hamas Palestine, september 2000: As peace talks break down, a visit of Ariel Sharon to a holy Muslim site near Jerusalem causes widespread riots among Palestinians Palestine, june 2001: suicide bombings in several Israeli cities are carried out by Hamas (Islamic Resistance Movement) and the Syria-based Islamic Jihad (the deadliest suicide bombings kill 20 people in june 2001, 15 people in august 2001, over 20 in november) Palestine, november 2001: Mahmoud Abu Hanoud, leader of the Hamas military wing in the West Bank, is killed by an Israeli missile Israel, april 2002: Israel invades Palestinian territory and arrests thousands of suspected terrorists, including Marwan Barghouti, members of the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine-General Command (PFLP-GC), now led by Ahmad Jibril, and the Popular Front for the Liberation of Palestine (PFLP), now led by Ahmed Sa'adat Iraq, august 2002: Abu Nidal is assassinated in Baghdad, amid rumours that he was plotting a coup against Saddam Hussein Palestine, september 2002: in retaliation for suicide bombings in Israel, Israeli troops demolish Yasser Arafat's compound in Ramallah Israel, 2002: the population of Israel is 6 million, of which 1 million are Arabs; the population of the West Bank and Gaza is 3 million; and Palestinian birthrates are much higher than Jewish ones Palestine, april 2005: Palestinians claim that Israel killed hundreds of civilians in the Jenin refugee camp, but it turns out to be a lie (the death were 23 Israeli soldiers, 22 Palestinian civilians and 30 Palestinian fighters) Palestine, march 2003: Ibrahim al-Maqadma, a senior leader of Hamas, is killed by an Israeli missile Palestine, march 2003: Mahmoud Abbas, a critic of the Palestinian intifada, is appointed prime minister of the Palestinian Authority Palestine, march 2004: Israel kills Hamas' spiritual leader Sheikh Ahmed Yassin, who is replaced by Khaled Meshaal Palestine, november 2004: Arafat dies and is replaced by Muhammad Abbas as chairman of the PLO, who wins the first multi-party elections in Palestine Lebanon, february 2005: a car bomb kills former Lebanese prime minister Rafik Hariri, who opposed Syrian occupation of the country and street demonstrations force the resignation of the Syria-installed government Palestine, september 2005: a Palestinian terrorist accidentally sets off a bomb in a crowded Palestinian area, killing 22 people Syria, october 2005: Ghazi Kenaan, Syria's interior minister, who effectively controlled Lebanon for two decades, "commits suicide" Israel, march 2006: in the first Israeli elections after prime minister Sharon suffered a stroke, his new party Kadima becomes the biggest party and Ehud Olmert the new prime minister Lebanon, april 2006: Lebanon arrests people who were plotting to assassinate the leader of Hezbollah, Hassan Nasrallah Israel, april 2006: a suicide bomber by Islamic Jihad kills nine people in Israel, the first major terrorist attack since Hamas won the elections Palestine, july 2006: in response to an incursion by Palestinian militants, Israel invades Gaza killing 220 Palestinians Lebanon, july 2006: in response to an incursion by Hezbollah militants, Israel invades southern Lebanon killing more than 1,000 Lebanese civilians while Hezbollah kills 116 Israeli soldiers and 43 Israeli civilians Lebanon, may 2007: Lebanon's militant group Fatah Islam, inspired by radical Muslim cleric Omar Bakri Muhammad kills 23 soldiers in clashes in Tripoli's Palestinian refugee camp, but the army eventually regains control of the camp killing 400 people Britain, june 2007: former British prime minister Tony Blair is appointed Middle Eastern envoy on behalf of the USA, Russia, the UN and the EU Lebanon, september 2007: a car bomb kills the third anti-Syrian politician in a year, leaving Lebanon's government with only a slim majority over the pro-Syrian opposition Lebanon, august 2008: A roadside bomb by Fatah Islam kills 18 people in Tripoli, Lebanon Israel, sep 2008: Israeli prime minister Ehud Olmert, facing a corruption scandal, is forced to resign, and is replaced by Tzipi Livni Palestine, aug 2009: Hamas attacks radical cleric Abdul-Latif Moussa's al-Qaeda-linked group Jund Ansar Allah, killing 13 people Israel, 2010: There are 500,000 Jews living in the occupied West Bank in more than 100 settlements, next to 2.5 million Palestinians, while 1.4 million Palestinians live in the Gaza strip Palestine, mar 2011: Hamas arrests Hisham Saidani/ al-Suedani, the leader of a Salafist and Al Qaeda affiliate organization Palestine, apr 2011: Israeli bombings against Hamas militants kill at least 17 people, including several civilians Israel, august 2011: Militants from Gaza kill eight Israeli people in Eilat and Israel retaliates killing 16 people in Gaza, including Popular Resistance Committees' leader Kamal al-Nayrab/ Abu Awad and al-Quds Brigades' leader Ismael al-Ismar, and accidentally killing three Egyptian soldiers Palestine, december 2011: Hamas celebrates 24 years of armed resistance that have killed 1,365 Israeli soldiers, fired 11,093 rockets and mortars at Israel, and carried out 87 suicide bombings Palestine, november 2012: An Israeli air strike kills Hamas' military chief Ahmed al-Jabari and other ten people, the beginning of an eight-day war that leaves 130 Palestinans and five Israelis dead Syria, may 2013: The civil war in Syria intensifies as Hezbollah vows to defend president Assad, Russia sells advanced weapons to Assad, Israel bombs Syria, and the European Union lifts an embardo on selling weapons to the rebels while about 80,000 have been killed Saudi Arabia, 1902: Abdul al-Aziz, at the head of a bedouin army, conquers Riyad and begins to unite the kingdom of Arabia (both through military action and marriage with 20 women) under the puritanical Wahhabi Islamic order Iraq, 1921: emir Faisal ibn Hussain, brother of King Abdallah of Jordan, is proclaimed King of Iraq, but still under British protectorate Iraq, 1933: King Faisal dies and his son, King Ghazi I, ascends to the throne Iraq, 1939: King Ghazi dies in a car accident while he is preparing an invasion of Kuwait, and is succeeded by the regent Abd al Ilah Iraq, may 1950: the Israeli government airlifts approximately 110,000 Jews to Israel (operations Ezra and Nehemiah, completed in august 1951) Iraq, july 1958: inspired by Gamal Abdel Nasser, officers led by brigadier Abdul-Karim Qassem overthrow the Hashimite monarchy and proclaim a republic Iraq, 1975: when Iran, the United States and Israel withdraw support to the Kurdish revolt led by Mustafa Barzani, Iraqi troops massacre thousands of Kurdish civilians and rebels after collecting them in "dar al-fana" ("houses of annihilation") Iran, august 1978: A fire kills 477 people in a movie theater in Abadan, Iran, causing mass demonstrations against the regime Iran, february 1979: Islamic clerics (ayatollahs) seize the power and appoint Ruhollah Khomeini supreme leader of Iran, just returned from exile Iran, january 1981: by trading weapons for hostages, the new American president, Ronald Reagan, obtains the release of the Americans held in Iran for 444 days Lebanon, april 1981: Syria defeats Bashir Gemayel's Phalange at Zahle, but Israel helps defeat the Syrian troops Iraq, june 1981: Israel bombs Iraq's Osirak reactor, manned by French, Italian and Brazilian engineers, that is producing enriched uranium fuel and plutonium that can be used for nuclear weapons Saudi Arabia, 1984: Saudi Arabia becomes the financial arm of the CIA to bypass the USA parliament, selling arms to Nicaragua's rebels, to Angola's rebels and to Afghanistan's rebels fighting communist regimes in three continents USA, february 1985: King Fahd of Saudi Arabia meets with USA president Ronald Reagan in the USA, carrying a "gift" of $2 million in diamonds Saudi Arabia, 1985: Britain sells weapons to Saudi Arabia, the largest arms sale in its history yet Iraq, 1987: An Iraqi Mirage warplane mistakenly attacks a USA warship in the Persian Gulf, killing 37 USA sailors Iraq, 1988: Thanks to intelligence provided by the USA, Iraq bombs strategic targets inside Iran Iraq, march 1988: Iraqi troops kill 5,000 Kurds with poison gas in Halabja, north Iraq Iran, april 1988: A USA warship is damaged by an Iranian mine in the Persian Gulf, and in retaliation the USA starts its largest naval battle since Vietnam, destroying two Iranian oil platforms and attacking Iranian warships Iraq, september 1988: Iraqi forces attack kurdish forces with chemical weapons, destroying nearly 4,000 of the 5,000 Kurdish villages and killing tens of thousands of civilians Iraq, may 1992: Fouad Masoum is elected leader of the regional Kurdish government, which controls northern Iraq and is de facto independent from Saddam Hussein Iran, march 1995: A USA-founded coalition of Chalabi's militia, Iraqi general Wafiq al-Samarrai and Talabani's Kurdish militia start a rebellion in northern Iraq but are stopped by Barzani's Kurdish militia and Turkish troops Yemen, mid 1994: during the civil war between communists and democratic forces, president Ali Saleh enjoys the support of Islah (Islamic Reform Party), an offshoot of the Hashed tribes in northern Yemen headed by radical Sheikh Abdul Mejid Az Zindani Jordan, 1995: The CIA sets up operations in Jordan to overthrow Saddam Hussein with the complicity of Jordan, and infiltrates dozens of spies inside Iraq Iraq, june 1996: Saddam Hussein orders the arrest, torture and execution of more than 100 secret agents of the Iraqi National Accord in Iraq who are preparing to overthrow him Iraq, december 1998: the U.

City of Lies: Love, Sex, Death, and the Search for Truth in

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Failure to perceive that continuity stems from the tendency to think in a more disjointed way in terms of presidential administrations. “Doctrines” get attributed to different presidents whether or not the presidents themselves have spoken in such terms. In addition to these complications, Indian history is also less well known and dated than that of China or Japan. By the time of Moses, Jews were urged increasingly to abandon the keeping of which would assure divine protection and guidance.

Princess Sultana's Daughters

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Choose a 3-night Jordan private tour including Petra, Wadi Rum and the Dead Sea for a chance to check some big sights off your must-see list. Hulse reviewed medical, historical and palaeopathological evidence from which it was "clear that biblical 'leprosy' is not modern leprosy" ( i.e. not the condition produced by Mycobacterium leprae), whether in the Hebrew or the Greek texts revered by the Christian Church.

Oriental Encounters

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They were written to keep people in bondage. Kearny march against the Cherokees with the largest U. Hittite governance was dominated by a king, who also served as the supreme priest, military commander, and chief judge. Israel and the Palestinians: In 1967 the Arab nations surrounding Israel planned to annihilate her, but Israel dramatically won the famous Six-Day War. S. government to establish a trading post and ferry before Kansas opened for settlement.

A Vision of the Middle East: An Intellectual Biography of

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If you wish to support us during this time, please make your check/money order to ICZC and mail it to the address below. The Grand Mufti of Jerusalem allied himself with Adolf Hitler during WWII. Is this some evidence of illness or deformity? Zooarchaeological evidence for animal domestication in Northwest China. More widespread settlement in fixed towns and villages appears not to have occurred until the Neolithic Period (c. 7000–c. 4000 bc). Terminology, social and religious views on the origins of disability, appropriate and inappropriate responses, and issues of Islamic law are considered, with many useful primary Arabic sources.

Sir Aurel Stein: Proceedings of the British Museum Study

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Ramos, “Identification and quantification of ergosterol and phenolic compounds occurring in Tuber spp. truffles,” Journal of Food Composition and Analysis, vol. 26, no. 1-2, pp. 177–182, 2012. The Birds of Ancient Egypt, The Natural History of Egypt, Volume I, Aris and Phillips, Warminster. Hamas, Council on Foreign Relations, June 14, 2006 Ehud Olmert became Israel’s new Prime Minister in April 2006, after serious illness befelled Sharon, and the Israeli Cabinet declared him incapacitated.

The End of Judaism

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Wheat yield for 2008/09 is likely to decrease due to excessive dryness, and production is forecast to drop by at least 0.1 million tons, to approximately 0.4 million. By 1918 the British captured Baghdad and ensconced themselves and their allies there, a perch from which they projected power for several decades. 5 American ascendance in the Persian Gulf later in the century created a new pattern of militarism and war. In Lion, B., and Michel, C. (eds.), De la domestication au tabou: Le cas des Suidés au Proche-Orient ancien, De Boccard, Paris, pp. 215–226.

The Black Ancient Egyptians

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Immigration to the United States from the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region has increased in recent years, rising to a total population of 1.02 million in 2013. Fouad Ajami, The Arab Predicament: Arab Political Thought and Practice since 1967 (Cambridge, updated edn. 1992). Israeli PM Ben Gurion ordered the IDF to sink the Altalena when Irgun leader Menahem Begin refused to give up its cargo of arms. It was claimed that the fungal antioxidant capacity is attributed to the presence of various chemicals such as ascorbic acid, carotenoids, esterified phenolics, and free- and nonflavonoid phenolics and flavonoids.